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GPS-GAP Studies

Welcome to the School of Technology GPS-GAP Studies Store

GPS, Geodesy and Application Program (GPS-GAP)

Please note that it is not possible to earn Michigan Tech course credit for the modules in this program. It is possible to qualify for different types of continuing education credits (e.g. professional society credits) by working directly with the course instructor.

The GPS-GAP program addresses the mathematical, physical and geodetic foundation of geospatial positioning with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). All major satellite systems are addressed, such as the U.S. GPS (Global Positioning System), the Russian GLONASS, the European GALILEO, and the Chinese COMPASS systems.

The material is presented in depth to understand geospatial positioning at all accuracy levels, ranging from meter to millimeter, in either real-time or post process. The concentrations are mathematical modeling, signal processing, estimation, geodetic theory, and global data networks and data services. An integral and unified approach exposes how these fundamental elements combine to generate a powerful global utility of vast economic value.

GPS-GAP contains many numerical examples that utilize surveying observations in addition to actual pseudorange and carrier phase observations of satellite signals. All observations are processed with software generated by the instructor in Mathcad and available to registered students upon request. This includes adjustments software for leveling networks, 2-dimensional networks on the ellipsoidal surface or the conformal mapping plane, and 3-dimensional networks, plus popular conformal mappings such as State Plane Coordinate Systems, relative GNSS carrier phase positioning with ambiguity fixing (LAMBDA), and PPP (Precise Point Positioning). No commercial software is utilized.

Registration is accepted at any time and a module can begin immediately thereafter. A module terminates on the last day of classes of the regular Michigan Tech fall or spring semester. If registration occurs during a semester, then the module terminates at the end of the following semester.


A minimum mathematical skill is required for all modules above the 400 level. Generally speaking, a first course on calculus, a course on linear algebra (emphasis on matrices), and a course on statistics (emphasis on least squares) is desirable.

Because online courses make iterative learning practical, a lack of current mathematical training might be compensated by studying the material iteratively. A student wishing to review mathematics is encouraged to take advantage of GPS 101 (Mathematics Refresher), which has been specifically designed to support the GPS-GAP series above level 400, and is free to registered GPS-GAP students.


The textbook for all GPS-GAP modules is GPS Satellite Surveying (3rd edition), published by J. Wiley.

GPS-GAP Studies Store

Please select one of the subject areas listed below to view the associated modules. Then click on a specific module if you want to view the full description. If you wish to purchase the module, you can add it to your shopping cart at any time and proceed to checkout.

For questions regarding eligibility, content or prerequisites, please contact Alfred Leick by email at or by phone at 207-581-2179.

If you have any questions regarding this site, please contact Peggy Gorton by email at or by phone at 906-487-2260.

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